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Until lions tell their tale, the story of the hunt will always glorify the hunter

African Proverb

Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will

– Frederick Douglass

The most pathetic thing is for a slave who doesn't know that he is a slave

– Malcolm X

Every man is rich in excuses to safeguard his prejudices, his instincts, and his opinions.

– Ancient Egypt

Marcus Garvey legacy is alive and well. Collectively, Africans around the globe acknowledges his greatness with a plethora of celebrations, parades, statures and monument's built in his honor

What kind of world do we live in when the views of the oppressed are expressed at the convenience of their oppressors?

– Owen 'Alik Shahadah

We are not Africans because we are born in Africa, we are Africans because Africa is born in us.

– Chester Higgins Jr.

Leave no brother or sister behind the enemy line of poverty.

– Harriet Tubman

Marcus Garvey's Legacy

Sabamya Jaugu
Sabamya Jaugu 17 August 2012

Also See: Garvey Economics

The white man has succeeded in subduing the world by forcing everybody to think his way. The white man?s propaganda has made him the master of the world. And those who have come in contact with it and accepted it have become his slaves.
Marcus Garvey


Undoubtedly, the honorable Marcus Garvey legacy is alive and well. Collectively, Africans around the globe acknowledges his greatness with a plethora of celebrations,
parades, statures and monument's built in his honor. All of these accolades are well deserved. However, more astounding is his achievement occurred during the era of telegrams, and segregated railroad cars.

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Then, racism was rampant and white supremacy was proliferated in both in America and Europe but also on people of color around the world. Despite these horrific conditions, he made major accomplishments that still revel today. The promoter of the " Back To Africa Movement, " was born on August 17th, 1887 in St. Ann's Bay, Saint Ann's Parish, in Jamaica and died in London, England, June 10, 1940. He was one of the eleven siblings born to Marcus Mosiah Garvey and Sarah Jane Richards, they both were Maroons.

He had a background in printing and published his first newspaper, The Watchman, in 1909. He left Jamaica in 1910 for Central America, settling first in the coastal town of Limon, Costa Rica, where he published a small newspaper. He would also spend time in Honduras and Belize. Garvey in 1911, went on to edit the newspaper, La Nacionale in Colon, Panama, before returning to Jamaica briefly in 1912, he again left in 1913 when he moved to England and worked with the enigmatic Sudanese-Egyptian nationalist Duse Mohamed Ali, in London, on the staff of Ali"s influential pan-African journal, The African Times and Orient Review.

A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots
Marcus Garvey

African Kings African Kings African Kings

They subjugate first, if the weaker peoples will stand for it; then exploit, and if they will not stand for SUBJUGATION nor EXPLOITATION, the other recourse is EXTERMINATION
Marcus Garvey

While living in England, Garvey visited a number of European countries, all the while expanding his education and acquiring a new consciousness of the system of imperial and aristocratic power as it reached its climax. It was an auspicious as well as fraught time, for within a month or two of returning to Jamaica. The First World War broke out. He was swept up, like so many others, in the dramatic and far-reaching changes that the war would usher in on a global scale.

On his return to Jamaica in 1914, he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A) in Jamaica. This program turned into an international organization to help his people economically, promulgating self-esteem together with historical pride and also, fighting against racial discrimination.

He aspired to open an industrial and agricultural training school modeled on Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute. Garvey was not unique in this, however, since other Africans, in particular mission-educated Africans in West Africa and South Africa, were attempting to do the same thing under the influence of Washington's Tuskegee Institute.

After writing to acquaint Washington with his efforts in Jamaica, Garvey was invited by Washington to come to the United States. Unfortunately, that meeting never occurred because of Mr. Washington untimely death before his arrival.

Eventually, he return to America in the spring of 1916, Garvey still made a pilgrimage to the world-famous Tuskegee school in Alabama to see firsthand the monument to Washington's memory. Previously, Garvey was profoundly influenced after reading Booker T. Washington, Up from slavery. Garvey went to Tuskegee to pay his respect to the great Washington, who had been such an inspiration, as well as to pay homage to the beacon of progress and achievement that was Tuskegee Institute, the visit also marked, in historical terms, a changing of the guard.

Garvey's whole political outlook was about to undergo a radical transformation as a result of what he would encounter in America. Up to that point, he was a follower of Washington who stressed racial solidarity, economic empowerment, and self-sufficiency together with institution building.

(for the contemporary era, Negro or black will not be used, instead African-American is substituted referring to the descendants of the Diaspora.)

Arriving totally unheralded and unknown in America, he was about to become his own man. He would take the African-American world by storm, and it would never be the same afterward.

In America, Garvey traveled in thirty-eight states, meeting with leaders and lecturing to audiences. The leadership disappointed him and he considered them opportunistic, ineffective, and also; he did not embrace the social appeasement agenda as a solution. He felt that the main issue was economics, and the focal point should be global using Africa as a catalyst.

He came at a perfect time because it was right when people were starting to rise up against the government and racism. Ultimately, there was no false sense of complacency because the social systems of welfare and social security didn't exist neither the charade being accepted in the society as equals. These were the days of global western domination.

Garvey first traveled around the country speaking and ended up in New York City where he started the second branch of the U.N.I.A. And he chose Harlem where there was a strong culture and the focus area of intelligentsia, literature and art.

Not long after his arrival, Garvey quietly organized a branch of the Universal Negro Improvement Association U.N.I.A., which initially functioned as a benevolent fraternal organization. Within a few years of this humble beginning, he rose rapidly to become the best-known, most controversial, and initiated a new generation of leadership.

Thus, the U.N.I.A. grew quickly; The Harlem branch, established in 1917, boasted a membership of 2000 in two months; His major audience included thousands of African-Americans, both in the Caribbean and America, together with Veterans of World War I. The U.N.I.A grew larger still following the race riots in the Red Summer of 1919. In that summer, the bloody race riots, was started and didn't end until early autumn, there were 26 different riots.

And in that same year, the organization established thirty branches in the United States, as well as others in the Caribbean, Latin America, England, Africa, and even a lone branch in Australia.

Under his leadership, the U.N.I.A became the largest mass movement among African people that has not been duplicated since, with 996 branches in 43 countries and six million members.

The U.N.I.A branches in these far-flung corners of the African people were kept together by the ideas of the Negro World. The success of the distribution showed that Garvey was sensitive of the need to combat the virulent ideas of the white film and publishing world. Sailors and travelers saw it as their task to ensure that the newspaper, reached the widest audience possible.

The Negro World, the official newspaper of the U.N.I.A., also as its publisher, Garvey spread the organization's philosophy globally. With a circulation of over 200,000 and published in three languages, Spanish and French as well as English, it was read on four continents.

The British, French and other colonial rulers in Africa and the Caribbean were very fearful of this prolific newspaper. They did not take kindly to the preaching of African nationalism and anti-colonialism. Therefore, banned the paper in such places as Trinidad, British Honduras (Belize), British Guiana (Guyana), the Gold Coast (Ghana), Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and elsewhere, including all the French African colonies.

Seamen usually smuggled the paper in wherever it was banned. Persons found with it in these countries were liable to be fined, imprisoned or even killed. In Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1927, an African was given life imprisonment for importing a few copies.

The newspaper attracted some of the most articulate writers of the Harlem renaissance. Such as, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Dr. Carter Woodson among others. Similar to the present-day use of reggae by the Rastafarian to bind the racial pride of the African-Americans, the Negro World was a weapon which all racists feared.

It was through this paper and the network of branches that Garvey organized the massive conventions of the U.N.I.A where the pageantry, dispensation of African titles, militant resolutions and cultural performances formed an integral part of the history of African nationalism.

The first International Convention of African people throughout the world, in 1920, attracted delegates from five continents, and America saw the full force of the U.N.I.A., whom paraded through Harlem with the Royal Guards, Engineering Corps, Paramilitary forces, the uniformed Black Cross Nurses, the Mounted Legionnaires and thousands of supporters chanting:

Down with Lynching, Join the Fight for Freedom and Africa Must Be Free.

His philosophies resonated with the rapidly urbanizing African-American communities and spread beyond the United States to the Caribbean, Latin America and Africa. The movement's dynamic core was Harlem, which Garvey helped make the cultural capital of the African world. And also, the six-block radius surrounding 135th Street and Lenox Avenue contained the international headquarters as well as the cradle of the movement, Liberty Hall, and the offices of all major affiliated enterprises. Restaurants, shops, and storefront factories spread throughout Harlem, and Garvey and many officers lived there.

During the annual U.N.I.A international conventions, the streets boasted colorful parades led by a regal Garvey, poised in an open car and wearing the plumed hat that became his indelible trademark.

With the success of his movement and support from his people he felt some kind of economic stronghold should be started. In 1919, the U.N.I.A established a shipping fleet called Black Star Line.

It derived its name from the White Star Line, whose success Garvey felt he could duplicate, which would become a standard of his Back-to-Africa movement. It was a sign of economic equality and enterprise. It consisted of two ships to transport passengers to and from Africa, America and the Caribbean.

The Black Star Line was among many businesses which the U.N.I.A originated, such as the Negro Factories Corporation was one of the ways by which they tried to become self-reliant. It operated a chain of businesses in Harlem. This included restaurants, groceries, laundries, a factory making black dolls for children, a hat factory, a hotel, tailoring establishment, a trucking business and printing press.

However, it was the Black Star Line which caught the imagination of the public, and also, the colonialist. Moreover, the principal cause of Garvey's downfall. His difficulties stemming from the ship line coincided with attacks from his critics and detractors.

Everywhere that the shipping line went they were greeted by scenes of wild enthusiasm. In Havana, Cuba, a ship line vessel was showered with flowers and fruit. In Bocas del Toro, Panama thousands of workers deserted their jobs for a day to see the Frederick Douglass. They brought gifts of flowers and fruit and danced on the ship's decks.

In South Carolina, people chartered a special train to take them to the port of Charleston when a Black Star Line ship stopped there. However, the shipping line, after its spectacular initial success, failed at the end.

Everyone who took part in negotiations for the ships, defrauded the company of tens of thousands of dollars. And also, white officers deliberately wrecked the ships' engines, causing thousands of dollars worth of unnecessary repairs. Some of the line's African-American employees were also dishonest and stole the company's money.

Unfortunately, the movement began to unravel under the strain of internal dissension, opposition from his critics, and government harassment. The government, seeking to discredit Garvey because it felt Garvey represented a threat to colonial interest and racial complacency in the U.S.. Fiscal irregularities in the shipping line prompted the U.S. Government to investigate Marcus Garvey's financial activities.

This was spearheaded by the then young Central Intelligence Agency C.I.A. director J. Edgar Hoover, who enlisted their first C.I.A informant, an African-American by the name of James Wormley Jones, to penetrate Garvey's organizations. Eventually, he was convicted in 1922, but he was on bail for three years while appealing against his conviction.

As Garvey knew that he did not have much time left for advancing his plans, he even went as far as meeting with the Ku Klux Klan leader, Edward Young Clark. His opposition was outraged. Du Bois editor of the Crisis, the official magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People N.A.A.C.P., article "Back to Africa," written in February 1923 was the first of which he personally attacked Garvey by calling him a "little fat ugly black man", among many other accusations.

Garvey responded stating in his article "Du Bois as a Hater of Dark People" that Du Bois hates the African blood inside of himself. Additionally, union leader A. Philip Randolph said that Garvey should be purged from American soil.

The conflict reached a climax with Du Bois article "A lunatic or a Traitor" . In this article, was published in May 1924, Du Bois called Garvey "the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race" and he was among other leaders who demand Garvey should either be sent to prison or deported. This amidst of other civil rights organizations now mounted a coordinated "Garvey must Go Campaign".

In 1924, was the most important of the five international U.N.I.A., conferences since 1920. The decision was taken to implement colonization in Liberia. However, Garvey never advocated or intended a wholesale "repatriation," from the West. His intention was to solicit volunteers of a qualified cadre of skilled people to build a headquarters in Liberia. In the goal of ridding Africa of European imperialism, he saw Liberia as the main base of operation.

Through these trying times the majority of Garvey's followers remained, remarkably faithful. And he continued to show considerable resilience. Thus, in 1924, after the collapse of the Black Star Line and while awaiting the verdict of his appeal, Garvey, to the further amazement of his enemies, inaugurated a new maritime venture, the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company, which acquired the S.S. Booker T. Washington.

Liberia's "irrevocable" repudiation of the U.N.I.A marked the end of any realistic chance of its program being implemented. Indeed, from 1924 the Garvey movement went almost steadily on the decline, despite brave attempts to rehabilitate it. The attempt to revive the shipping line through the Black Cross Navigation and Trading company also failed.

In February 1925, with his appeal disallowed, Garvy became the victim more of a political than a judicial decision. It is generally agreed that it was clearly never his intention to defraud. Consequently, he was given the maximum sentence because it was the political interest of France, England and United States. This was a deadly blow at the Garvey Movement; thus, on February 8, 1925, he began his five-year prison sentence in the Atlanta penitentiary.

Garvey's second wife, Amy Jacques Garvey, organized a letter-writing campaign that prompted President Calvin Coolidge to pardon him in 1927 in exchange for the him accepting deportation.

He was deported to Jamaica as a convicted felon and lost direct access to the main theater of his operations in Harlem. Garvey spent the first five months of 1928 successfully revitalizing the U.N.I.A., in the Caribbean and Central America.

And in August, U.N.I.A, held its sixth international conference in Kingston, which, while seemingly a Garvey victory, ended in an irreparable quarrel between him and his American lieutenants over the question of whether the organization should be controlled by its most populous and wealthiest branch in Harlem, or Kingston. Shortly after, there was legal separation between the American and the Jamaican-based branch.

Garvey was unable to regain his previous prominence in Jamaica, and eventually, relocate his headquarters to London in 1935. Where he spent his last years trying to revive his political fortunes and died in London, in 1940.

His Legacy

Wake up Ethiopia! Wake up Africa! Let us work towards the one glorious end of a free, redeemed and mighty nation. Let Africa be a bright star among the constellation of nations.
Marcus Garvey

Immediately, upon his decline and fall from influence, there were serious efforts to silence his memory and marginalize his accomplishments. Nevertheless, his legacy still remains with us. Marcus Garvey was a visionary far beyond his time. This was reflected in the first International Convention of African Peoples of the World in Madison Square Garden, in New York in 1920. There was over 25,000 African people from all over the world witnessed the choosing of red, black, and green as the colors of the Provisional Government, a symbol of African nationalism. In fact, it's his Provisional Government flag that now represents African nationalism. Whenever you see the red, black, and green, it's visible proof of Marcus Garvey's legacy.

At the August 1924 U.N.I.A convention, Bishop George Alexander McGuire, founder of the African Orthodox Church, enunciated the doctrine of a black God and unveiled the black Madonna in Liberty Hall. Various sects proliferated and expanded on the fringes of the Garvey movement or arose from within its fold, such as the Nation of Islam and Rastafarianism.

Later during World War II, the Italian invasion and occupation of Ethiopia, sparked a tremendous mass movement and support from African-Americans from both the United States and the Caribbean to help Ethiopia to regain her independence.

Shortly after the war, Shashamane, a small village town, in Ethiopia gained international attention when In 1948 Emperor Haile Selassie, donated 500 acres of his private land to allow members of the Rastafari movement, and a few African-Americans to settle in Shashamane. The land was granted as a gift to the African people of the West for their assistance in World War II.

Garvey's legacy and ideals have found a voice in the lyrics of conscious reggae musicians past and present. Everyday in all parts around the world, Marcus Garvey's philosophies are heard in reggae music from internationally famous musicians such as Bob Marley, his siblings, Burning Spear, and also other musical artist.

His legacy is considerable, since Garvey never set foot in Africa, but implanted notions of economic self-sufficiency and African nationalism. His ideas, whether accepted or rejected, have played an important role in shaping our modern world. Garvey's legacy has influenced the careers of leaders who pioneered African independence, ranging (for the sake of brevity only a few are listed) from Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana; Julius Nyerere of Tanzania; Sekou Toure of Guinea; Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Patrice Lumumba of the Congo;  to Nelson Mandela of South Africa. Marcus Garvey is the father of African Nationalism.


I am not opposed to the white race as charged by my enemies. I have no time to hate any one. All my time is devoted to the up-building and development of the Negro Race
Marcus Garvey

There are two misconceptions that need clarifying, one is confusing Garvey's movement with Dubois involvement in Pan-African Conferences and the other, was his 'Back to Africa movement' was an effort to repatriate all African-Americans to the motherland.

Marcus Garvey had the clairvoyance to understand the fundamental issues, was economic together with distortions of culture. Most importantly, realizing the former slaves in the Diaspora were separated from their traditions and land.

His beliefs were the African-American descendants would be second-class citizens, as long as they remain divided into several communities scattered in foreign lands. He dedicated his life to ameliorate cultural misconceptions and activity changing economic conditions for the betterment of Africans worldwide.

The first misconception is that Marcus Garvey was involved in the Pan-African conferences during the 1920s. Garvey and Du Bois clashed openly in their struggle for leadership preeminence.

They represented two different philosophies, Garvey' was a global Pan-Africanist engaged in the practical redemption of Africans everywhere, posing a liberated Africa as a base. Conversely, Dubois focused on continental Pan-Africanism and stressed self-determination. Garvey was an effective mass leader, organized over six million Africans in the U.N.I.A, whereas DuBois was elitist and by his own analysis unable to reach the masses.

Finally, Garvey advocated statehood and state power for Africans while Dubois stressed political participation within the United States.

The second misconception was Garvey intended a wholesale " back to Africa " repatriation. His insight was far ahead of his time. His mantra was Europe for the Europeans, Asia for the Asiatic and Africa for the Africans those at home and abroad. His intention was a well-thought-out plan for a control repatriation of select volunteers of engineers, agriculturalist, architects and families to build a model city in Liberia.

Back then, there were two choices, Ethiopia and Liberia. Ethiopia, the only African sovereign country entering into the modern era with their independence which they won with a major victory defeating the Italians on the battle field at Adowa, Ethiopia on March 1, 1896.

On the other hand, Liberia was founded by African-Americans from the United States, who wanted to escape slavery in America. Between; 1820 and 1865 approximately 15,000 African-Americans the largest number from the West ever to return to Africa, settled in the area called Liberia, under the protection of the United States flag.

Marcus Garvey regarded the Liberian Republic as an important staging ground for their concept of liberation. The historians and Marxists alike have denigrated the U.N.I.A and Garvey in simplistic 'back to Africa' terms. However, he had a clear understanding of the long-term strategic significance of Africa's development. His objective was to purchased land in Liberia and build a model city and relocate the Harlem U.N.I.A. Headquarters there.

This message was carried in the Negro World, and the creation of the Black Star Line would speed up the trading, political and cultural links between Africa and her dispersed children in the West. Garvey saw Africa, essentially as the only place where African people could launch a successful bid for equality with other races and nations. Africa was the African's ancestral home, and the continent was rich in natural resources. U.N.I.A., would've built colleges, hospitals, industrial plants, railroads together with other economic enterprises.

This would've been the show case for the African people of the world to be recognize, and also, giving countries on the motherland the encouragement to strive for independence from the colonialist.

And if Liberia became powerful in Africa this would raise U.N.I.A status all over the world. As a means of consolidating its protection for the scattered numbers of the race, Garvey envisioned that such a strong African government should extend citizenship to African people everywhere.

Liberian government, interested in trained manpower and capital, initially endorsed enthusiastically Garvey's colonization project. His first major Liberian contact had been Gabriel Johnson, Mayor of Monrovia, who was named Supreme Potentate of the U.N.I.A. at the 1920 convention. He was instrumental in getting Garvey's Liberian project endorsed first by the Acting President Edwin J. Barcely and his cabinet in 1921, and later by President Charles D.B. King and his cabinet.

However, primarily because of pressure from the British, French and other colonial governments, whom obviously wanted to maintain their dominance in their respective colonies. This resulted in the Liberian government rather suddenly announced a ban on Garvey's emigrants. In in June 1924, the U.N.I.A technical experts sent out to Liberia was deported.

The Negro who lives on the patronage of philanthropists is the most dangerous member of our society, because he is willing to turn back the clock of progress when his benefactors ask him so to do
Marcus Garvey

Even though, two past presidents were members of the U.N.I.A, and the mayor of Monrovia held the title of High Potentate of Africa in Garvey's Provisional Government. The Liberian government was so worried for fear that his organization would take over their country that they warned all of their American consuls to deny visas to any of Garvey's followers.

Garvey obviously failed to realize many of his objectives, such as the creation of a show case city in Liberia, or the establishment of a sovereign country in Africa. However, his legacy lives, for ideas that helped to advance the political, economic and cultural consciousness of Africans worldwide. And the legacy of the man and his movement remained a powerful source of inspiration to African nationalism, both in the New World and Africa.

Marcus Garvey was born August 17, 1887 in St. Ann's Bay, Saint Ann's Parish, in Jamaica, he was an unknown child in the midst of white dominance, and globally our people had no self-esteem, hope or aspirations. In today's contemporary world, his legacy is worldwide and admired by friend and foe alike.

He's the father of African nationalism and his legacy for justice, humanity, economic independence and cultural enlightenment continues for Africans both on the motherland and the Diaspora descendants.


Philosophy & Opinions of Marcus Garvey edited by Amy Jacques-Garvey
Rasta and Resistance - Horace Campbell
Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the U.N.I.A- Edmund David Cronon
Marcus Garvey 1887-1940 - Adolph Edwards
http://archives-two.liberiaseabreeze.com/althea-romeo-mark3.html http://www.blackpeopleparty.com/14.html


Submitted by African Manifesto | African Manifesto Copyrighted ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2012

Further Reading

Allen, R. (1969). Black Awakening in Capitalistic America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

DuBois, W.E.B. (1940). Dusk of Dawn. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace.

Garvey, M. (1924). "UNIA report." Negro World, January.

Haddad, W., and Pugh, D. (1969). Black Economic Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Henderson, W., and Ledebur, L. (1970). Economic Disparity: Problems and Strategies for Black America. New York, NY: The Free Press.

Jacques-Garvey, A. (Ed.). (1969). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. New York, NY: Atheneum.

Lewis, R. (1992). Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion. Trenton, NJ: African World Press.

Lewis, R., and Bryan, P. (Eds.). (1991). Garvey: His Work and Impact. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.

Martin, T. (1986). Message of The People: The Course in African Philosophy. Dover, MA: The Majority Press.

Martin, T. (1976). Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and The Universal Negro Improvement Association. Dover, MA: The Majority Press.

Nolan, W. (1951). Communism versus the Negro. Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Company.

Rashad, A. (2002). "Some early Pan-African nationalists." RaceandHistory.com.

Rogoff, E., and Trinkaus, J. (1998). "Perhaps the times have not yet caught up to Marcus Garvey, an early champion of ethnic entrepreneurship." Journal of Small Business Management, 36 (4), 66-71.

Sertima, I. (1988). "Great Black leaders: Ancient and modern." Journal of African Civilizations, 17 (4), 372-383.

Stein, J. (1986). The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press.

Vincent, T. (1971). Black Power and the Garvey Movement. Berkeley, CA: Ramparts Press.

Shawn Carter is Assistant Professor of Economics at Jacksonville State University, Alabama. He holds a Ph.D. from Texas A&M University. Please send all correspondence to 700 Pelham Road North, Jacksonville, AL 36265, or call (256)782-5799.


Marcus Garvey Quotes

If the Negro is not careful he will drink in all the poison of modern civilization and die from the effects of it.
Marcus Garvey

How dare anyone tell us that Africa cannot be redeemed, when we have 400,000,000 men and women with warm blood coursing through their veins? The power that holds Africa is not Divine.
Marcus Garvey

Negroes should be more determined today than they have ever been, because the mighty forces of the world are operating against the non-organized groups of people, who are not ambitious enough to protect their own interests.
Marcus Garvey

We are men; we have souls, we have passions, we have feelings, we have hopes, we have desires, like any other race in the world. The cry is raised all over the world today of Canada for the Canadians, of America for the Americans, of England for the English, of France for the French, of Germany for the Germans - do you think it is unreasonable that we, the Blacks of the world, should raise the cry of Africa for the Africans?
Marcus Garvey

Let us in shaping our own Destiny set before us the qualities of human JUSTICE, LOVE, CHARITY, MERCY AND EQUITY. Upon such foundation let us build a race, and I feel that the God who is Divine, the Almighty Creator of the world, shall forever bless this race of ours, and who to tell that we shall not teach men the way to life, liberty and true human happiness?
Marcus Garvey

All peoples are struggling to blast a way through the industrial monopoly of races and nations, but the Negro as a whole has failed to grasp its true significance and seems to delight in filling only that place created for him by the white man.
Marcus Garvey

The Negro who lives on the patronage of philanthropists is the most dangerous member of our society, because he is willing to turn back the clock of progress when his benefactors ask him so to do.
Marcus Garvey

I am not opposed to the white race as charged by my enemies. I have no time to hate any one. All my time is devoted to the up-building and development of the Negro Race.
Marcus Garvey

The Negro has loved even under severest punishment. In slavery the Negro loved his master, he safe-guarded his home even when he further planned to enslave him. We are not a race of Haters, but Lovers of humanity's Cause.
Marcus Garvey

All of us may not live to see the higher accomplishment of an African Empire?so strong and powerful, as to compel the respect of mankind, but we in our life-time can so work and act as to make the dream a possibility within another generation.
Marcus Garvey

No one knows when the hour of Africa's Redemption cometh. It is in the wind. It is coming. One day, like a storm, it will be here. When that day comes all Africa will stand together.
Marcus Garvey

What do I care about death in the cause of the redemption of Africa?...I could die anywhere in the cause of liberty: A real man dies but once; a coward dies a thousand times before his real death. So we want you to realize that life is not worth its salt except you can live it for some purpose. And the noblest purpose for which to live is the emancipation of a race and the emancipation of posterity.
Marcus Garvey

Lagging behind in the van of civilization will not prove our higher abilities. Being subservient to the will and caprice of progressive races will not prove anything superior in us. Being satisfied to drink of the dregs from the cup of human progress will not demonstrate our fitness as a people to exist alongside of others, but when of our own initiative we strike out to build industries, governments, and ultimately empires, then and only then will we as a race prove to our Creator and to man in general that we are fit to survive and capable of shaping our own destiny.
Marcus Garvey

For us to examine ourselves thoroughly as a people we will find that we have more traitors than leaders, because nearly everyone who essays to lead the race at this time does so by first establishing himself as the pet of some philanthropist of another race, to whom he will go and debase his race in the worst form, humiliate his own manhood, and thereby win the sympathy of the ?great benefactor?, who will dictate to him what he should do in leadership of the Negro race? These leaders tell us how good Mr. So and So is, how many good friends we have in the opposite race, and that if we leave everything to them all will work out well.
Marcus Garvey

Not all black men are willing to commit race suicide and to abhor their race for the companionship of another. There are hundreds of millions of us black men who are proud of our skins, and to us the African Empire will not be a Utopia, neither will it be dangerous, nor fail to serve our best interests, because we realize that, like the leopard, we cannot change our skins, and so long as black is black, and white is white, the black man shall occupy a position of inferiority depending upon the justice of the great white race to lead and direct him. No race in the world is so just as to give to others a square deal in things economical, political, social and otherwise.
Marcus Garvey

The Black skin is not a badge of shame, but rather a glorious symbol of national greatness.
Marcus Garvey

I read ?Up From Slavery? and then my dream -- if I may so call it -- of being a race leader dawned.
Marcus Garvey

Wake up Ethiopia! Wake up Africa! Let us work towards the one glorious end of a free, redeemed and mighty nation. Let Africa be a bright star among the constellation of nations.
Marcus Garvey

Wake up AFRIKA! let us work towards the one glorious end of a free, redeemed and mighty nation. Let AFRIKA be a bright star among the constellation of nations.
Marcus Garvey

Every man has a right to his own opinion. Every race has a right to its own action; therefore let no man persuade you against your will, let no other race influence you against your own.
Marcus Garvey

That we suffer so much today under whatsoever flag we live is proof positive that constitutions and laws, when framed by the early advocates of human liberty, never included and were never intended for us as a people. It is only a question of sheer accident that we happen to be fellow citizens today with the descendants of those who, through their advocacy, laid the foundation for human rights.
Marcus Garvey

The white man has succeeded in subduing the world by forcing everybody to think his way. The white man?s propaganda has made him the master of the world. And those who have come in contact with it and accepted it have become his slaves.
Marcus Garvey

They subjugate first, if the weaker peoples will stand for it; then exploit, and if they will not stand for SUBJUGATION nor EXPLOITATION, the other recourse is EXTERMINATION.
Marcus Garvey

There can be no peace among men and nations, so long as the strong continues to oppress the weak, so long as injustice is done to other peoples, just so long we will have cause for war, and make a lasting peace an impossibility.
Marcus Garvey

Present day statesmen are making the biggest blunder of the age if they believe that there can be any peace without equity and justice to all mankind. Any attempt at disarmament when half the world oppresses the other half is but a farce, because the oppressed will make their oppressors get armed sooner or later.
Marcus Garvey

A happy but miserable state in which man finds himself from time to time; sometimes he believes he is happy by loving, then suddenly he finds how miserable he is. It is all joy, it sweetens life, but it does not last. It comes and goes, but when it is active, there is no greater virtue, because it makes one supremely happy.
Marcus Garvey

We have a beautiful history, and we shall create another in the future that will astonish the world.
Marcus Garvey

History teaches us no race, no people, no nation has ever been freed through cowardice, through cringing, through bowing and scraping, but all that has been achieved to the glory of mankind, to the glory and honour of races and nations was through the manly determination and effort of those who lead and those who are led.
Marcus Garvey

History is the land-mark by which we are directed into the true course of life.
Marcus Garvey

The history of a movement, the history of a nation, the history of a race is the guide-post of that movement's destiny, that nation's destiny, that race's destiny.
Marcus Garvey

At no time within the last five-hundred years can one point to a single instance of the Negro as a race of haters.
Marcus Garvey

We are moving from one state of organization to another, and we shall continue until we have thoroughly lifted ourselves in the organization of GOVERNMENT.
Marcus Garvey

The world does not count races and nations that have nothing.
Marcus Garvey

Point me to a weak nation and I will show you a people oppressed, abused, taken advantage of by others. Show me a weak race and I will show you a people reduced to serfdom, peonage and slavery. Show me a well organized nation, and I will show you a people and a nation respected by the world.
Marcus Garvey

Nationhood is the highest ideal of all peoples.
Marcus Garvey

Hungry men have no respect for law, authority or human life.
Marcus Garvey

She makes one happy, then miserable. You are to her kind, then unkind. Constant yet inconstant. Thus we have WOMAN. No real man can do without her.
Marcus Garvey

DEATH is the end of all life in the individual or the thing; if physical, the crumbling of the body into dust from whence it came. He who lives not uprightly, dies completely in the crumbling of the physical body, but he who lives well, transforms himself from that which is mortal, to immortal.
Marcus Garvey

LIFE is that existence that is given to man to live for a purpose, to live to his own satisfaction and pleasure, providing he forgets not the God who created him and who expects a spiritual obedience and observation of the moral laws that He has inspired.
Marcus Garvey

Fear is a state of nervousness fit for children and not men. When man fears a creature like himself he offends God, in whose image and likeness he is created. Man being created equal tearsr not man but God. To fear is to lose control of ones nervees, ones will, to flutter, like a dying fowl, losing consciousness, yes, alive.
Marcus Garvey

To be a Christian is to have the religion of Christ, and so to be a believer of Mohammed is to be a Mohammedan but there are so many religions that every man seems to be a religion unto himself.
Marcus Garvey

A form of religion practiced by the millions, but as misunderstood, and unreal to the majority as gravitation is to the untutored savage. We profess to live in the atmosphere of Christianity, yet our acts are as barbarous as if we never knew Christ. He taught us to love, yet we hate; to forgive, yet we revenge; to be merciful, yet we condemn and punish, and still we are Christians. If hell is what we are taught it is, then there will be more Christians there than days in all creation. To be a true Christian one must be like Christ and practice Christianity, not as the Bishop does, but as he says, for if our lives were to be patterned after the other fellow's all of us, Bishop, Priest and Layman would ultimately meet around the furnace of hell, and none of us, because of our sins, would see salvation.
Marcus Garvey

No two persons think alike, even if they outwardly profess the same faith, so we have as many religions in Christianity as we have believers.
Marcus Garvey

Before we can properly help the people, we have to destroy the old education... that teaches them that somebody is keeping them back and that God has forgotten them and that they can't rise because of their color.. we can only build... with faith in ourselves and with self-reliance, believing in our own possibilities, that we can rise to the highest in God's creation.
Marcus Garvey

God does not... give people positions or jobs or... good conditions such as they desire; they must do that for themselves.. God does not build cities nor towns nor nations, nor homes, nor factories; men and people do that and all those who want must work for themselves and pray to God to give them strength to do it.
Marcus Garvey

God Almighty created each and every one of use for a place in the world, and for the least of us to think that we were created only to be what we are and not what we can make ourselves, is to impute an improper motive to the Creator for creating is.
Marcus Garvey

If the white man has the idea of a white God, let him worship his God as he desires. If the yellow man's God is of his race let him worship his God as he sees fit. We, as Negroes, have found a new ideal. Whilst our God has no color, yet it is human to see everything through one's own spectacles, and since the white people have seen their God through white spectacles, we only now started out (late though it be) to see our God through our own spectacles. The God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. We Negroes believe in the God of Ethiopia, the everlasting God - God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Ghost, the One God of all ages. That is the God in whom we believe, but we shall worship Him through the spectacles of Ethiopia.
Marcus Garvey

It is only the belief and the confidence we have in a God why man is able to understand his own social institutions, and move and live like a rational human being.
Marcus Garvey

Take away the highest ideal -- FAITH and CONFIDENCE IN A GOD -- and mankind at large is reduced to savagery and the race is destroyed.
Marcus Garvey

RELIGION is one's opinion and belief in some ethical truth. To be a Christian is to have the religion of Christ, and so to be a believer of Mohammed is to be a Mohammedan but there are so many religions that every man seems to be a religion unto himself. No two persons think alike, even if they outwardly profess the same faith, so we have as many religions in Christianity as we have believers.
Marcus Garvey

Liberate the minds of men and ultimately you will liberate the bodies of men.
Marcus Garvey

Let it be your constant method to look into the design of people's actions, and see what they would be at, as often as it is practicable; and to make this custom the more significant, practice it first upon yourself.
Marcus Garvey

Ambition is the desire to go forward and improve one's condition. It is a burning flame that lights up the life of the individual and makes him see himself in another state. To ambitious is to be great in mind and soul. To want that which is worth while and strive for it. To go on without looking back, reaching to that which gives satisfaction.
Marcus Garvey

There is a great deal of work to do and it calls for sacrifice and determination on the part of those who are leading, and if men believe that money should be the only consideration for leadership, then there can be no successful achievement.
Marcus Garvey

The power that holds Africa is human, and it is recognized that whatsoever man has done, man can do.
Marcus Garvey

Let us prepare TODAY. For the TOMORROWS in the lives of the nations will be so eventful that Negroes everywhere will be called upon to play their part in the survival of the fittest human group.
Marcus Garvey

Progress is the attraction that moves humanity.
Marcus Garvey

God and Nature first made us what we are, and then out of our own created genius we make ourselves what we want to be. Follow always that great law. Let the sky and God be our limit and Eternity our measurement.
Marcus Garvey

A man's bread and butter is only insured when he works for it.
Marcus Garvey

CHANCE has never yet satisfied the hope of a suffering people.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

So many of us find excuses to get out of the Negro Race, because we are led to believe that the race is unworthy?that it has not accomplished anything. Cowards that we are! It is we who are unworthy, because we are not contributing to the uplift and upbuilding of this noble race.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

There is always a turning point in the destiny of every race, every nation, of all peoples, and we have come now to the turning point of Negro, where we have changed from the old cringing weakling, and transformed into full-grown men, demanding our portion as MEN.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Let Africa be our guiding Star?OUR STAR OF DESTINY.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

A race without authority and power, is a race without respect.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

The world ought to know that it could not keep 400,000,000 Negroes down forever.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

The evolutionary scale that weights nations and races, balances alike for peoples; hence we feel sure that some day the balance will register a change for the Negro.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

EDUCATION is the medium by which a people are prepared for the creation of their own particular civilization, and the advancement and glory of their own race.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

The masses make the nation and the race. If the masses are illiterate, that is the judgment passed on the race by those who are critical of its existence.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

I know no national boundary where the Negro is concerned. The whole world is my province until Africa is free.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Every student of Political Science, every student of Economics knows, that the race can only be saved through a solid industrial foundation. That the race can only be saved through political independence. Take away industry from a race; take away political freedom from a race, and you have a group of slaves.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

For over three hundred years the white man has been our oppressor, and he naturally is not going to liberate us to the higher freedom?the truer liberty?the truer Democracy. We have to liberate ourselves.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Action, self-reliance, the vision of self and the future have been the only means by which the oppressed have seen and realised the light of their own freedom.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Be as proud of your race today as our fathers were in days of yore. We have beautiful history, and we shall create another in the future that will astonish the world.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

The whole world is run on bluff.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

What you do to-day that is worthwhile, inspires others to act at some future time.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

There is nothing in the world common to man, that man cannot do.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

The ends you serve that are selfish will take you no further than yourself; but the ends you serve that are for all, in common, will take you even into eternity.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Men who are in earnest are not afraid of consequences.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

If you have no confidence in self, you are twice defeated in the race of life. With confidence, you have won even before you have started.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

The only protection against INJUSTICE in man is POWER?Physical, financial and scientific.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Any sane man, race or nation that desires freedom must first of all think in terms of blood. Why even the Heavenly Father tells us that "without the shedding of blood there can be no remission of sins." Then how in the name of God, with history before us, do we expect to redeem Africa without preparing ourselves?some of us to die.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy & Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Slavery is a condition imposed upon individuals or races not sufficiently able to protect or defend themselves, and so long as a race or people expose themselves to the danger of being weak, no one can tell when they will be reduced to slavery.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy & Opinions of Marcus Garvey

The political readjustment of the world means that those who are not sufficiently able, not sufficiently prepared, will be at the mercy of the organized classes for another one or two hundred years.
Marcus Garvey, The Philosophy & Opinions of Marcus Garvey

Before you have a government, you must have the people. Without the people there can be no government. The government must be, therefore, an expression of the will of the people.
Marcus Garvey, Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey


We are living in a time when image-making has become a science. Someone can create a certain image and then use that image to twist your mind and lead you right up a blind path
Malcolm X

"white" depends for its stability on its negation, "black." Neither exists without the other, and both come into being at the moment of imperial conquest.
Franz Fanon

You cannot measure an African success with a European ruler
Owen ' Alik Shahadah


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