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African Holocaust | The Greatest Holocaust in History | African/Black Revolts


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Until lions tell their tale, the story of the hunt will always glorify the hunter

African Proverb

Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will

– Frederick Douglass

The most pathetic thing is for a slave who doesn't know that he is a slave

– Malcolm X

Every man is rich in excuses to safeguard his prejudices, his instincts, and his opinions.

– Ancient Egypt

Cowardice asks the question: is it safe? Expediency asks the question: is it political? Vanity asks the question: is it popular? But conscience asks the question: is it right.

– Dr. Martin L. King, Jr

What kind of world do we live in when the views of the oppressed are expressed at the convenience of their oppressors?

– Owen 'Alik Shahadah

We are not Africans because we are born in Africa, we are Africans because Africa is born in us.

– Chester Higgins Jr.

Leave no brother or sister behind the enemy line of poverty.

– Harriet Tubman

If we stand tall it is because we stand on the shoulders of many ancestors.

African Proverb

If we do not stop oppression when it is a seed, it will be very hard to stop when it is a tree.

– ' Alik Shahadah

If the future doesn't come toward you, you have to go fetch it

Zulu Proverb



Africans fought for their freedom

Holocaust     Holocaust
In the face of cultural aggression of all sorts, in the face of all disintegrating factors of the outside world, the most efficient weapon with which a people can arm itself is this feeling of historical continuity Holocaust
Holocaust Holocaust
Holocaust Diop

Resistance, revolt, and eventual social transformation is born out of an oppressed peoples awareness of themselves and the knowledge that their `collective soul' is under attack by their oppressors. To the degree that this cultural cohesiveness persist determines the degree to which the oppressed group will go in order to assure its survival. - Muhammad Shareef

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“Of course the image is always given that the Africans themselves acquiesce to the process of slavery. But you’ll find that in West Africa there was a polity or a political entity that existed that guaranteed security right across West Africa and that was the Songhay Empire. We saw the emergence of Nasser Uddin in the 16th Century. We saw Malik Sy in the 16th Century as well, and men like Abdul Qadeer and Cherno Sulayman Kaba, these men who waged resistance in what is known as Futa Toro and Futa Jalon.

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Malê Revolt

The Muslim uprising of 1835 in Bahia illustrates the condition and legacy of resistance among the community of Malês, as African Muslims were known in 19th century Bahia. The majority of the participants were Nago, the local designation for ethnic Yoruba. Many of the "Malês" had been soldiers and captives in the wars between Oyo, Ilorin and other Yoruba city-states in the early part of the 19th Century. Other participants included Hausa and Nupe clerics, along with Jeje or Dahomean soldiers who had converted to Islam or fought in alliance with Muslims

While the revolt was scheduled to take place on Sunday, January 25, due to various incidents, it was forced to start before the planned time. On Saturday the 24th, slaves began to hear rumors of an upcoming rebellion. While there are multiple accounts of freed slaves telling their previous masters about the revolts, only one was reported to the proper authorities. A man named Domingos Fortunato overheard rumors and told his wife, Guilhermina Rosa de Souza, of the rebellion. Guilhermina then proceeded to tell her white neighbor, André Pinto da Silveira. Several of Pinto de Silveira's friends were present, including Antônio de Souza Guimarães and Francisco Antônio Malheiros, who took it upon themselves to relay the information to the local authorities. All of these events occurred between the hours of 9:30 and 10:30 PM on Saturday the 24th.

The justice of the peace, José Mendes de Costa Coelho, took the necessary precautions; he reinforced the palace guard, alerted the barracks, doubled the night patrol, and ordered boats to watch the bay, all by 11:00 PM. At around 1:00 AM on Sunday, justices of the peace searched the home of Domingos Marinho de Sa. Domingos had reported that there were Africans meeting in his house due to fear for his life. However, sensing Domingos's fear, the justices asked to see for themselves. They went down into his basement and found the ringleaders, discussing last minute details. However, the Africans were able to turn the officers out into the streets. Out on the streets, the fighting saw its first real bloodshed; several people were injured and at least one killed. After securing the area, the rebels split up to go in different directions throughout the city. Most of the groups did very little fighting because they were recruiters, calling slaves to war.

However, the largest group traveled up the hill toward Palace Square (Praça Municipal today), and continued to fight. The rebels decided to first attack the city palace of the jail , attempting to free a Muslim leader, Pacifico Licutan. However, the prison guards proved too much for the rebels, who perhaps were looking to supplement their weak supply of arms with the jailers'. Under heavy fire, the slaves withdrew from the prison and retreated to the Largo de Teatro. Reinforcements arrived on the slaves side, and together they attacked a nearby post of soldiers in order to take their weapons. They marched toward the officer's barracks, and put up a good fight, however, the soldiers were able to pull the gate guarding the barracks shut. The slaves had failed. After failing to take several more key positions, the slaves decided to head through the city, toward Cabrito, the designated meeting spot. However, in between Cabrito and Salvador da Bahia was the Brazilian cavalry. And when they met in Água de Meninos, the most decisive battle of the revolt took place. At about 3:00 AM, the rebels reached Água de Meninos. The footsoldiers immediately retreated inside the confines of the barracks while the men on horseback stayed outside. The rebels, who now only numbered about 50–60, did not attempt to attack the barracks. Instead, they sought a way around it. However, they were met with fire from the barracks, followed by a cavalry charge, which proved too powerful for the rebel slaves. After the rebels were completely devastated, more slaves arrived. After assessing the situation, the slaves decided that their only hope would be to attack and take the barracks. However, this desperate attempt proved futile, and the rebels quickly decided to flee. The cavalry mounted one last charge that finished them off.

Fearful that the whole state of Bahia would follow the example of Saint-Domingue (Haiti) and rise up and revolt, the authorities quickly sentenced four of the rebels to death, sixteen to prison, eight to forced labour, and forty-five to flogging. The remainder of surviving leaders of the revolt were then deported back to Africa by the authorities; it is believed that some members of the Brazilian community in Lagos, Nigeria, Tabom People of Ghana are descended from this deportation, although descendants of these Afro-Brazilian repatriates are reputed to be widespread throughout West Africa (such as Sylvanus Olympio, the first president of Togo). The term "Aguda" on the other hand refers to the mainstream, predominantly Christian Brazilian returnees to Lagos who brought Roman Catholicism in their wake; which is why that denomination is often referenced in Yoruba as "Ijo Aguda" (The Portuguese Church). Fearing the example might be followed, the Brazilian authorities began to watch the malês very carefully and in subsequent years intensive efforts were made to force conversions to Catholicism and erase the popular memory and affection towards Islam. However, the African Muslim community was not erased overnight, and as late as 1910 it is estimated there were still some 100,000 African Muslims living in Brazil.


And then you saw the emergence also of men like Muhammad Al-Amin and Momadou Toure. Of course we had Nzinga and the Southern areas of Africa as well that was fighting its resistance against European invasion. All the way up until the 17th Century men like Sheikh Uthman Dan Fodiod and Umar Futi as well as Ahmed Lobo. And then we had the courageous wars, which took place in 1884 under the armies of Muhammad Ahmed, Ibn Abdullahi of the Sudan as well as Muhammad Abdullahi al Hassan of Somalia. And then we had in 1903 finally, the wars that took place between the Sokoto Empire. So the Africans did not acquiesce colonialism, nor did they acquiesce towards slavery, they fought at every point and in fact when the slaves were landing in the Western hemisphere in Bahia Brazil you saw the emergence of jihad movements. You saw the emergence of men like Muhammad Sambo who led a two-month jihad in the Louisiana territories in North America. Men like Nat Turner and other men who refused to submit to slavery. The Haitian Revolution as well. Men like Macantow. So The Africans never acquiesce to slavery in fact we can say this year that the whole concept of freedom that the American thirteen colonies had, they got that concept of freedom and liberty from the African resistance movement that took place in the Western Hemisphere.” 

Holocaust Muhammad Shareef


San Miguel de Gualdape

According to Aptheker, and others, the first documented enslaved African rebellion in the Western Hemisphere, was at the Spanish settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape where enslaved Africans rebelled against their conditions in the fall of 1526. The prime source of this information is ~The Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States, 1513-1561~ by Woodbury Lowery. Noted historian Peter Wood also mentions this incident (in ~Black Majority~).

The first documented enslave African rebellion in Mexico, occurred in 1537; this was followed by the establishment of various runaway enslave African's settlements called "palenques.".
In Brasil, in a sugar cane region near the Atlantic ocean known as Pernambuco, a group of 40 enslave Africans rebelled against their master. They killed all the white employees and burned the houses and plantation. They headed to a very hostile area in the mountains, known as Palmares, because of its abundance of palm trees. In this place an African community was born which lasted for over 100 years. It was divided into eleven fortified sites. There, a population estimated to be about 20 000 free Africans created a new religion and a common language to bring together at least six different African cultures. It is argued that they organized the first socialist society in world. They also mobilized an army that could take over Pernambuco, if they wanted to. They defeated seven attacks from Brazilian military forces and from a Dutch army that had invaded and occupied that region for some years. They ignored a proposal of peace and freedon for all, from the king of Portugal. Zumbi of Palmares, today a hero for Brazilian Africans, was the name of an young acolyte who grew up and became the greatest leader of this African community. Also in this community the first forms of Capoeira which is a deadly martial art, were developed.

Contribution made by Italo Ramos iramos@cy.com.br

In Mexico, Spaniards negotiated the establishment of a free black community with Yagna, a runaway rebel enslave African. Today, that community in Veracruz bears its founder's name.
In Brazil, many enslave Africans with assistance from Palmares an escape enslave African community in the mountains, left the plantations and fought the Portuguese and Dutch Armies. This fighting continued up until 1644. It is important to point out that the Dutch and Portuguese Armies were formed by very experienced and well-armed soldiers. But the Africans developed a system of fighting called "jungle war" or ambush. Capoeira which is a deadly martial art, was the key element in the unexpected attacks. With fast and tricky movements the African caused considerable damage to the white men. Capoeira became their weapon, their symbol of freedom.
St. Kitts Nevis
On the island St. Kitts, in November 1639, more than sixty enslaved Africans from the Capisterre region, angered by the brutal treatment meted out to them by their owners, left their plantations and found refuge on the slopes of Mount Misery. They took with them their women and children. The runaways built a formidable camp upon the mountainside. It was protected by a precipice on one side and could only be approached by a narrow pass. From this position they carried out raids on the plantations. To put an end to their activities, Governor De Poincy raised a company of five hundred armed men. The stronghold was stormed by the soldiers and the uprising was crushed without much difficulty as the runaways were poorly armed and too few in number to offer much resistance. Most of them were killed in skirmishes. Some of the runaways were burnt alive, while the rest were captured, quartered, and their limbs exposed on stakes to serve as a warning to those who might be tempted to rebel.

However, one of their leaders, a gigantic man, escaped and continued to elude capture for three years and was able to carry on a one-man reign of terror from the forests of Mount Misery. He served as a rallying point for other discontented enslaved Africans and was kept well informed of what was going on in the settlements. However, he continued to live apart from his fellow runaways, fearing that one of them might betray him in order to gain favour with the planters. His success in evading capture inspired many to think that he was aided by supernatural powers.

Realising the danger that this situation caused to the French settlement on the island, De Poincy sent some half a dozen soldiers to track him down and capture him. The mission was kept secret to prevent the slaves from giving him advance notice of what was to come. The soldiers pursued him and once they had him in their sights they blazed away at him. None of their muskets would go off and the infuriated African sword in hand, charged them. The men fled and he was able to gain a musket and a hat. Again the rumor spread that the runaway possessed magical powers that protected him from fire arms.

Quickly the French Governor sent out another squad to seize him. Again the African was found and surrounded, again shots were fired and again he was not hit. However, the sergeant who must have kept his nerve more than his subordinates, shot him through the head. His body was quartered and the limbs hung in the most public places.

Virginia, USA
First serious enslave African conspiracy in Colonial America, Sept. 13. Servant betrayed plot of White servants and enslave Africans in Gloucester County, Va.
Virginia, USA
Fugitive Africans in small armed bands raided nearby towns hoping to convince others to join them. The Assembly urged their capture dead or alive, saying "very dangerous consequences may arise if other Negroes fly forth and join them."
New York, USA
Enslave Africans revolt, New York, April 7. A group of slaves plotting rebellion bound themselves to secrecy by "sucking ye blood of each Others hand." Several months later, they set fire to a building and attacked approaching whites, killing nine. Eventually, 70 Negroes were taken. Six were pardoned and 27 condemned, one being hung alive in chains so, stated the Governor" . . . there has been the most exemplary punishment inflicted that could be possibly thought of . . ."
After a half century of guerrilla warfare against colonial and European troops, the Maroons of Surinam who were escaped enslaved Africans, signed treaties with the Dutch colonial government in the 1760s, enabling them to live a virtually independent existence. Their population was estimated to be between 25,000 and 47,000 during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Nanny of the Maroons stands out in history as the only female among Jamaica’s national heroes. She possessed that fierce fighting spirit generally associated with the courage of men.

In fact, Nanny is described as a fearless Asante warrior who used militarist techniques to fool and beguile the English. Nanny was a leader of the Maroons at the beginning of the 18th. Century. She was known by both the Maroons and the British settlers as an outstanding military leader who became, in her lifetime and after, a symbol of unity and strength for her people during times of crisis. She was particularly important to them in the fierce fight with the British during the First Maroon War from 1720 to 1739. Although she has been immortalized in songs and legends, certain facts about Nanny (or "Granny Nanny", as she was affectionately known) have also been documented. Both legends and documents refer to her as having exceptional leadership qualities. She was a small wiry woman with piercing eyes. Her influence over the Maroons was so strong that it seemed to be supernatural and was said to be connected to her powers of obeah. She was particularly skilled in organising the guerrilla warfare carried out by the Eastern Maroons to keep away the British troops who attempted to penetrate the mountains to overpower them. Her cleverness in planning guerrilla warfare confused the British and their accounts of the fights reflect the surprise and fears which the Maroon traps caused among them. Beside inspiring her people to ward off troops, Nanny was also a type of chieftainess or wise woman of the village, who passed down legends and encouraged the continuation of customs, music and songs that had come with the people from Africa, and that instilled in them confidence and pride. Her spirit of freedom was so great that in 1739, when Quao signed the second Treaty (The first was signed by Cudjoe for the Leeward Maroons a few months earlier) with the British, it is reported that Nanny was very angry and in disagreement with the
principle of peace with the British which she knew meant another form of subjugation. There are many legends about Nanny among the Maroons. Some even claim that there were several women who were leaders of the Maroons during this period of
history. But all the legends and documents refer to Nanny of the First Maroon War as the most outstanding of them all, leading her people with courage and inspiring them to struggle to maintain that spirit of freedom, that life of independence, which was their rightful inheritance. Like the heroes of the pre Independence era, Nanny too met her untimely death at the instigation of the English sometime around 1734. Yet, the spirit of Nanny of the Maroons remains today as a symbol of that indomitable desire that will never yield to captivity.
Virginia, USA
Enslave African conspiracy discovered in Norfolk and Princess Anne counties, Va.
St. Johns, USVI

Nov. 23 2002 marked the 267 years since the slave revolt took place on St. John. What led up to it? Who were these enslaved Africans who took on many plantation owners as well as other Danish officials and the whites ruling class? These are some of the issues that were never addressed when we were in school.

One of the most successful slave rebellions in the long history of self-determination in the Caribbean took place then on the Danish-controlled island of St. John. It was 3 a.m. on Nov. 23, 1733, a group of enslaved Africans broken into their "master's" house, a Mr. Soetman's, stripping him of his cloth and forced him to dance and sing. They ran a sword through his body and cut off his head and washed themselves in his blood. Following the execution, they killed his stepdaughter Hissing, a 13 year old, and left her body on top of him.

About 4 a.m. that same morning, a group of 14 enslaved Africans marched through the gates of Fortsberg at Coral Bay, St. John. They slaughtered five soldiers at the fort.

The revolt spread, particularly on the northwest side of the island, and some 300 enslave Africans were on the war path, going from estate to estate. The rebellion continued until June of 1734. However, many historians have the tendency to overlook the real cause that led up to this bloody revolt. They have polished the history to the point that you may think the enslaved and brutalized Africans were just bloodthirsty.

The enslaved Africans who initiated the revolt were known as the "Akan" or "Aminas." They originally were from the Gold Coast of West Africa, including Ghana.

In the 1730s enslaved Africans were brought to St. John and St. Thomas to work on the plantations; many slaves escaped into the forest of the island. This was a cause of major concern for planters, who owned the slaves, and of the Danish government.

Gov. Philip Gardelin issued an 18-article code to control enslaved Africans on the islands from running away. First, enslaved Africans were not considered human beings in the Danish West Indies. They were property, to buy and to sell. The document stated that any runaways would be subjected to torture with a red-hot iron. They could also lose a leg or ear. The leaders of runaway slaves would be tortured and hung.

Additional punishment included whippings and branding. Slaves failing to report what they knew of runaways would be branded in their forehead and would get 100 lashes. A slave found guilty of conspiracy would lose his/her legs unless the owners requested a lighter sentence.

Cowardly slaves that "ratted" on other slaves received awards from the Danish authorities. The code also stated that any slaves who didn't show deference to white people would lose their right hand; or hanging for a slaves who struck or threatened to strike a white person. In other words, enslaved Africans in the Danish colonials had no rights. The female slaves were raped and sexually exploited. The "owners" of slaves had the right to do as they pleased with their "property."

Thousands of enslaved African wo-men were raped, killed and abused. In fact, the majority of slaves who ran away- known as the maroons - were female slaves.

Another reason leading up to the slave revolt on St. John was the natural disasters. Before the upraising of slaves on St. John in November of 1733, there were long periods of drought; followed in July by a devastating hurricane that destroyed crops, buildings and shipments.

That same year, another hurricane hit the island. After that, a plague of insects destroyed many of the products of the islands and slaves teetered on famine. We today would say, "All hell breaks lose." Well, that's exactly what happened in 1733. The enslaved Africans of the Akan tribe believed in the "migration of souls." When they die, they believed that they would go into a better world.

For this and other reason the slaves of St. John took things into their own hands. The Danish government got help from the French island of Martinique to hunt down slaves and killed them. Some slaves escaped by jumping over a cliff known as Ram Head.

Each year - for the pass 18 years - a group of Virgin Islanders, as well as individuals from other Caribbean is-lands, hike to Ram Head to pay their respect to those who fought for freedom - all our freedom.

This year a film company from Cali-fornia will be documenting the event of the slaves revolt on St. John. Lauren Herz is the associate producer of the company.

A group of us will hike to Ram Head on Friday. For more information, contact Professor Gene Emanuel at 693-1348 at the University of the Virgin Islands.

By Olasee Davis
South Carolina, USA
Enslaved Africans revolt, Stono, S.C., Sept 9. Twenty-five Whites killed before the insurrection was put down.
New York, USA
Series of suspicious fires and reports of enslaved Africans conspiracy led to general hysteria in New York City, March and April. Thirty-one enslaved Africans and five Whites were executed.
The Berbice enslaved Africans Rebellion broke out (at the time when Berbice was a separate Dutch colony). The revolt is the result of the cruelty with which the Dutch plantation owners have been treating the enslaved Africans. The enslaved Africans led by Cuffy (Kofi) held the county of Berbice for almost one year. The revolution began at plantation Magdalenenburg which is up the Canje River. The population on the plantation was approximately 3,833 Africans, 346 Europeans and 244 Amerindian (Native) labourers. Within one month the Africans were in control of almost all the plantations in Berbice. Some of the Dutch soldiers fled others were killed by the Africans. The Africans were eventually defeated because they entered into negotiations with the Europeans who assured them that they were negotiating in good faith. The Europeans were actually waiting for the arrival of reinforcements. When the shiploads of reinforcement arrived, the Europeans being the majority and better armed, were then able to defeat the Africans. Almost a year after the revolution began Cuffy killed himself rather than be taken captive by the Europeans. Today Cuffy is a National Hero of Guyana.
The Irish presence in Montserrat dates back to the 1630s, when the first pioneers -- Roman Catholics -- sailed over from St. Kitts because of friction with British Protestant settlers there. The Irish planters brought Enslaved Africans to work their sugar cane fields. Soon the enslaved Africans outnumbered them 3-to-1 and began rebelling. In 1768, the enslaved Africans planned an island-wide attack on St. Patrick's Day, when the planters would be celebrating. Servants were instructed to grab all the weapons they could find inside the Government House while field slaves stormed the building with rocks, farm tools, clubs and homemade swords. But someone leaked the plan, and debate over who's to blame still continues. Local authorities punished the enslaved Africans severely, hanging nine. Today people mix their annual celebration of shamrocks and green beer with memories of an aborted enslaved African revolt against Irish planters. The result is a Caribbean amalgam of colonial culture and African pride -- a week long fete with islanders dancing Irish jigs one night, then mocking their one-time masters the next by cracking whips and masquerading in tall hats like bishops' miters. "We are celebrating the rise of the African freedom fighters said historian Howard Fergus.
Massachusetts, USA
In Massachusetts enslaved Africans petitioned the legislature for freedom, Jan. 6. There is a record of 8 petitions during Revolutionary War period.
On the Belize River in Belize, enslaved Africans took over five plantations and killed six white men. There were about fifty armed Africans with sixteen Musquets, Cutlasses, etc. involved in this rebellion.
Haitian Revolution began with the revolt of enslaved Africans in the northern province, Aug 22. An estimated 350,000 people died in this revolution before Haiti was declared a free republic on January 1, 1804. This was the most significant rebellion during the MAAFA. See a lot more on The Haitian Revolution
In August 1795, there was a major enslaved African rebellion for two weeks on the island of Curacao, led by Tula and Bastiaan Karpata. Influenced by the revolution in Haiti, they gained weapons, attacked plantations and freed other enslaved Africans. They were caught and executed the following month. Curacao's enslaved Africans were not emancipated until 1863. They still commemorate the uprising on August 17.
Richmond, USA
Gabriel Prosser plotted and was betrayed. Storms forced suspension of attack on Richmond, Va., by Prosser and some 1,000 enslaved Africans on Aug. 30. This conspiracy was betrayed by two enslave Africans. Prosser and fifteen of his followers were hanged on Oct 7.
Lousiana, USA
In january of 1811, a powerfull uprising of enslaved Africans took place in the area of New orlean, Lousiana. On january 8, 1811 over 500 enslaved Africans, led by a laborer named Charles on the Deslonde plantation (some 26miles upriver form New Orleans) downed there tools and grabed a few weapons. They then proceeded to march on the city. Their goal was to capture the city and free all the enslaved Africans in the lower Mississippi valley. As they moved down the river, they pushed back the enslavers and their flunkeys, killing many and burning several plantations. There rallying cries were, "On to New Orleans!" and "freedom or death!" They got to within 10 miles of the city, where they were attacked by U.S. government troops. Casualties well taken on both sides. This was the largest enslaved Africans revolt in the United States.
Florida, USA
300 enslaved Africans and about 20 Indian allies held Fort Blount on Apalachicola Bay, Fla., for several days before it was attacked by U.S. Troops.
On the island of Barbados an enslaved African by the name of Bussa, led a revolt over the British rulers. His bravery and commitment against the evil of slavery is commemorated today with a statue in his honor (which is shown in the picture at the top left side of this page).
In May the enslaved Africans of the Belize and Sibun rivers a region in Belize, revolted after very harsh treatment. This revolt was led by two enslaved Africans name Will and Sharper. This revolt lasted for about one month.
South Carolina, USA
Denmark Vesey plotted and was betrayed. 'House slave' betrayed Denmark Vesey conspiracy, May 30. Vesey conspiracy, one of the most elaborate enslaved African plots on record, involved thousands of Africans in Charleston, S.C., and its vicinity. Authorities arrested 131 Africans and four whites. Thirty-seven were hanged. Vesey and five of his aides were hanged at Blake's Landing, Charleston, S.C., July 2.
There was an enslaved African rebellion on the East Coast of the Demerara in the country of Guyana.
Cincinnati, USA
Race riot, Cincinnati, Ohio, August 10. More than 1,000 Africans left the city for Canada.
Augusta, USA
A slave-set fire swept the city. Governor Forsyth appealed to U.S. Secretary of War, for "arms to protect the people of the state in case of slave revolt.".
Virginia, USA
Nat Turner revolt, Southampton County, Va., August 21-22. Some 60 Whites were killed. Nat Turner was not captured until October 30. Nat Turner was hanged, in Jerusalem, Va., Nov. 11.

The Baptist Revolt

1) Samuel Sharp (a literate enslaved African), saw a newspaper and read an article on the emancipation of the enslaved Africans. He misinterpreted the article, thinking that emancipation was given to the enslaved Africans, but the planters refused to give slaves their freedom. Sharp, of course, felt that he and his fellow enslaved Africans were being denied their freedom and so vowed to get back at the whites and hasten emancipation. He told his fellow enslaved African not to work until they get paid until Christmas. During the battle, Samuel acted like a Trade Union leader of modern times.

  • 2) This is a proposed cause:- An enslaved African male was forced to watch his spouse brutally flogged and got enraged, so he striked at the whipper, who was a African man and he got arrested. The reason is that he went against authority. The other enslaved Africans, who were witnesses, got angry and revolted.
  • 3) Another proposed cause:- William Knibb, a missionary, was blamed by the whites for enticing the eslaved Africans to revolt. The planters felt that the non-conformists (Baptists and English Catholics) who did not stick to the Anglican religion, encoraged the enslaved Africans to revolt. However, William Knibb of the Baptist church heard of the plans of revolting from one of the enslaved Africans and tried to stop it. What William never thought of, is that the nature of his sermons and the teachings of all men being equal, may have stirred up the rebellion.

    The violence and bloodshed started on the 27th of December, 1831. It began in the Salt Spring estate, 50,000 enslaved Africans broke out in revolt in the western parishes. Signal fires were used in communicating the message of the revolt from one plantation to the next. Boiling houses, mansions and cane fields were deliberately set aflame. The enslave Africans also destroyed other plantation properties, tools and equipment, mainly the punishment tools and devices.


  • 1) 15 whites were killed
  • 2) 400 slaves were killed in battle and 100 including Samuel Sharp were flogged or executed.
  • 3)Several missionaries were arrested
  • 4) William Knibb was arrested and charged with enticing rebellion against the colony.

    Submitted by Miss Talitha Gilbert.

  • Brazil
    In Brazil, 1835 was the year of the famous Revolt of Malês. Malê was the name of enslaved African contingent bought in Muslim countries, that left few descendants in Brasil. They had culture, were monotheists, knew how to read and write, used to teach the Koran to others enslaved Africans and organized revolts in 1807, 1809, 1813, 1816, 1827 and, the biggest, in 1835, all in Bahia state. Tired of fighting them the Brazillian government qualified them too dangerous to stay in Brasil and thus they were deported back to Africa. From then on, to buy this kind of slaves was forbidden."
    Baltimore, USA
    Frederick Douglass escaped from slavery in Baltimore, Sept. 3.
    Amistad mutiny led by Joseph Cinquez, were captured. After trial in Conn., returned to Africa.
    Click here to see more on AMISTAD
    Virginia, USA
    Enslave Africans revolted on the slave trader 'Creole' which was en route from Hampton, Va., to New Orleans, La., Nov 7. The enslaved Africans overpowered crew and sailed vessel to Bahamas where they were granted asylum and freedom.
    Georgia, USA
    Ellen Craft impersonated an enslaver holder, William Craft acted as her servant in one of the most dramatic enslaved Africans escapes--this one from slavery in Georgia, Dec 26.
    Maryland, USA
    Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery in Maryland, summer. She returned to South 19 times and brought out more than 300 enslaved Africans.
    Massachusetts, USA
    African abolitionist crashed into a courtroom in Boston and rescued a fugitive enslaved African, Feb 15.
    Pennsylvania, USA
    Africans dispersed a group of slave catchers Sept 11 in Christiana, Pa., conflict. One White man was killed, another wounded.
    New York, USA
    African and White abolitionists smashed into courtroom in Syracuse, N.Y., and rescued a fugitive enslaved African Oct 1.
    Virginia, USA
    Five Africans with 13 Whites with John Brown attacked Harpers Ferry, Va., Oct 16-17. Two Africans were killed, 2 captured, one escaped. John Copeland and Shields Green hanged at Charlestown, Va., Dec 16.

    In the USA slave revolt was a capital crime, and many who were executed for that reason have since been posthumously pardoned

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